essential oils list

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essential oils should be used with caution and the awareness of potential harmful effects. generally, essential oils should not be taken internally; some oils are very toxic. however, some are not harmful and can be used for flavor (e.g. orange, lemon, grapefruit, tangerine, peppermint, spearmint, to name a few). never use essential oils therapeutically without the advice of a doctor or well-respected aromatherapist.
if you are unfamiliar with essential oils, see "introduction to essential oils" to get an overview of the various oils, the different types, and the importance of their condition (read quality).
with the exception of lavender and tea tree, essential oils should never be applied directly to the skin, but well-diluted in a suitable carrier oil (sweet almond, jojoba, etc.) before using.
this is by no means a complete list of all the known essential oils ...just some of the more common ones, the one i've had experience with, and the ones i've acquired some information about. see "fragrance formulas" for a list of blends using some of these oils. these formulas can be used as is or as inspiration for some of your own creations.
with regard to scent blending: (see "creating a scent")
a color code is used to indicate the singular note designation, (-top; -middle; -base). where multiple codes are used, this simply means the oil is used as either note, depending upon its relationship to the other ingredients in the blend. no code just indicates the data is pending.
"blends well with" indicates this oil blend well with the oils listed. if no oils are listed, it simply means the information was not available.
"bridge", if listed, indicates this oil works well as a bridge between the notes shown, (e.g. "bridge: top - middle" means this oil works well at easing the transition between the top and middle phases of the fragrance).

the "cautions" [listed below] regarding usage concerns are in no way a complete reference, and where listed, are merely informative. these oils are also listed in "aromatherapy" where the focus is on their respective therapeutic attributes.

allspice (fruit) - pimenta officinalis (cuba, india, jamaica, mexico, north america).
this oil's aroma resembles a mixture of pepper, clove and cinnamon.
-- (stimulating, vitalizing)
caution: may irritate the skin and mucous membranes
blends well with: frankencense, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemon, patchouli, orange, ylang ylang
bridge: top - middle; middle - base

almond, bitter (fruit) - prunus armeniaca (north america).
crisp scent.
-- (sense enhancing, strengthening)
caution:avoid use in sun. skin irritant. avoid during pregnancy
blends well with: allspice, amber, cassia, cinnamon, clove, ginger, lavender, lemon, neroli, nutmeg, oakmoss, orange, patchouli, sandalwood, spikenard, vanilla, violet leaf, ylang ylang

ambrette (seed) - abelmoschus moschatus (france).
woodsy scent; aphrodisiac.
-- (balancing, calming)
blends well with: frankincense, neroli, olibanum, rose, sandalwood
bridge: middle - base

amyris (wood) - amyris balsamifera (west indies).
balsamic, sweet-woody scent; often referred to as "west indian sandalwood".
-- (grounding, energizing. toning, balancing)
blends well with: anise, cedarwood, citronella, lavender, palmarosa
bridge: middle - base

angelica (seed, root) - angelica archangelica (belgium, china, egypt, france, germany, holland, india, russia, spain).
musky scent; aphrodisiac.
-- (anchoring, restoring, strengthening, warming)
caution: phototoxic, avoid use in sun. avoid use during pregnancy
blends well with: basil, bergamot, frankincense, dalmatian sage, geranium, helichrysum, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, melissa, myrrh, neroli, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spruce, vetiver, ylang ylang
bridge: middle - base

anise (seed pod) - pimenella anisum (central america, china, india, indonesia, italy, morocco, south america, spain).
a warm, spicy/sweet, licorice-like aroma; deodorant. anise solidifies, or freezes at 59° f, this is a criterion value of anise. during cold weather months the anise may become solid during shipping. do not be alarmed; this is actually a normal occurrence. if crystallization has occurred, it is your assurance of good value anise. if the anise has crystallized, warm the oil until it is liquefied and shake.
-- (cheering, balancing, energizing, toning)
caution: slight dermal toxicity - avoid during pregnancy
blends well with: amyris, bay, caraway, cardamom, cedarwood, coriander, fennel, galbanum, mandarin, petitgrain, rosewood

armoise / aka: mugwort (whole plant) - artemisia vulgaris; alba
(china, france, germany, hungary, india, japan, morocco).
aromatic, camphorous, fresh, minty scent.
-- (energizing. toning, balancing, stimulating)
caution: may irritate skin. avoid during pregnancy
blends well with: cedar leaf, cedarwood, clary sage, lavender, muguet, patchouli, rosemary, sage, violet

balsam peru (bark) - myroxylon pereirae (el salvador).
sweet, vanilla-like, woodsy scent. exotic aroma, imparts a rich, earthy scent to perfumes.
-- (anchoring, strengthening)
caution: may irritate skin. avoid use with high blood pressure
blends well with: cinnamon, clove, patchouli, sandalwood

basil, sweet (herb-whole plant) - ocimum basilicum
(bulgaria, commores, europe, egypt, france, madagascar, north america, seychelles, vietnam).
warm, licorice-like, spicy, herbal scent; deodorant.
-- (cheering, clarifying, energizing, invigorating, refreshing, soothing, strengthening, toning, uplifting, warming)
caution: may irritate skin. avoid use if pregnant, with high blood pressure, if prone to seizures, with history of estrogen-dependent cancer
blends well with: bergamot, citronella, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, hyssop, lavender, mandarin, marjoram, neroli, orange, rosemary, tangerine, verbena, violet
bridge: top - middle

bay, laurel (leaf) - laurus nobilis (france).
light, crisp, spicy, sweet aroma; aphrodisiac.
-- (calming, energizing, relaxing, stimulating, uplifting, warming)
blends well with: anise, carnation, cedarwood, clove, eucalyptus, lime, nutmeg, rose, violet
bridge: middle - base

bay rum (leaf) - pimenta racemosa (jamaica, puerto rico, south america, west indies).
light, crisp, spicy, sweet aroma; aphrodisiac. amazingly similar to bay laurel but more robust.
-- (calming, energizing, relaxing, stimulating, uplifting, warming)
blends well with: anise, carnation, cedarwood, clove, eucalyptus, lime, nutmeg, rose, violet
bridge: middle - base

benzoin (resin) - benzoin styrax (borneo, china, sumatra, thailand, united arab emirates).
sweet, vanilla-like scent; deodorant.
-- (clarifying, penetrating, rejuvenating, soothing, uplifting, warming)
blends well with: cypress, eucalyptus, lemon, neroli, sandalwood

bergamot (peel) - citrus bergamia (italy, morocco).
a fresh, sweet citrus smell, (like orange and lemons with floral overtones); deodorant, most notably used in earl grey teas. known for its warm and balancing effect on emotions. extensively used as a fragrance, and for skin care.
-- (balancing, calming, cheering, encouraging, normalizing, refreshing, stimulating, uplifting)
caution: photosensitizing. do not be used directly on the skin before exposure to the sun.
blends well with: basil, cedarwood, chamomile, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, marjoram, neroli, patchouli, peppermint, rose, sage, sandalwood, spearmint, tangerine, thyme, vanilla, ylang ylang

birch, sweet (bark) - betula lenta (united states).
has a stimulating, even arousing effect on the spirits.
caution: may be toxic if used in large amounts
blends well with: cajeput, chamomile, frankincense, lemon

birch, white (bark) - betula alba (germany, holland, russia).
a minty, woodsy scent.
-- (elevating, increases awareness, uplifting)
caution: slightly toxic. avoid if pregnant or with high blood pressure
blends well with: lime, spearmint, wintergreen

black pepper (peppercorn) - piper nigrum (asia, brazil, india, indonesia, madagascar, malaysia).
pungent, sharp, spicy, woodsy aroma; aphrodisiac. blends well with rose and other floral oils for the oriental fragrance industry. used extensively in the commercial food industry.
-- (balancing, energizing, focuses concentration, invigorating, revitalizing, toning, warming)
caution: skin irritant; dilute well. avoid if using homeopathic remedies. avoid with high blood pressure.
blends well with: basil, bergamot, cypress, floral oils, frankincense, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, marjoram, rose, rosemary, sandalwood
bridge: top - middle

cade (twigs/wood) - juniperous oxycedrus.
tar-like smoky aroma.
caution: skin irritant
blends well with: birch, clove, rosemary, thyme

cajeput, rectified (bud/leaf) - melaleuca leucodendron (indonesia, north america).
sweet, penetrating, camphorous, medicinal aroma.
-- (balancing, energizing, soothing, stimulating)
caution: can be an irritant; dilute well
blends well with: bergamot, clove, lavender, rosewood

calendula / aka: marigold (petal) - calendula officinalis (egypt, south africa).
it's impossible to distill calendula petals and most of what's available is the infused oil of calendula. the carbon dioxide-extracted calendula total co2 produces a high grade extract

camphor, white (leaf) - cinnamonum camphora (borneo, china, japan, sumatra).
fresh, sharp, penetrating, pungent scent, mothball-like. it is most commonly inhaled or applied externally in rubs.
-- (balancing, clarifying, cooling, energizing, stimulating)
caution: avoided if pregnant, with epilepsy, asthma - do not confuse with the toxic oils of brown camphor, yellow camphor or borneo camphor
blends well with: basil, cajeput, chamomile, frankincense, mandarin, orange, ylang ylang

caraway (seed) - carum carvi (asia, europe, holland, north america).
minty fragrance.
-- (enhances alertness, refreshing, stimulating)
caution: skin irritant. slightly toxic - avoid with high blood pressure
blends well with: anise, cinnamon, eucalyptus, rosemary
bridge: top - middle

cardamom (seed) - elettaria cardamomum (central america, ceylon, el salvador, guatemala, india).
a camphorous, floral, spicy, sweet scent. has many of the same qualities of nutmeg.
-- (balancing, focuses concentration, revitalizing, sense-enhancing, stimulating, stress-reducing, warming)
caution: avoid with high blood pressure
blends well with: anise, cedarwood, clove, frankincense, jasmine, neroli, orange, rose, violet, ylang ylang

carrot (seed) - daucus carota (france, hungary).
sweet, earth aroma; aphrodisiac.
-- (balancing, nourishing, replenishing, restoring, soothing, stimulating)
caution: avoid if pregnant. overuse can cause nausea
blends well with: bergamot, lavender, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, rosemary

cassia (leaf/twig) - cinnamomum cassia (china).
cinnamon-like aroma

cedarwood, atlas (wood) - cedrus atlantica; deodora; mexicana
(algeria, china, east africa, himalayas, lebanon, morocco, north america).
rich, camphorous, dry, sweet, woodsy lead pencil-type aroma. aroma improves with age.
-- (balancing, focusing, grounding, harmonizing, regenerative, relaxing, strengthening, stress-reducing, tension-relieving)
caution: skin irritant. avoid if pregnant
blends well with: amyris, anise, armoise, bergamot, cardamom, citronella, clary sage, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, ginger, juniper, lavender, marjoram, oakmoss, palmarosa, patchouli, rosemary, vetiver, ylang ylang
bridge: middle - base

cedarwood (wood) - juniperus virginiana; oregonia (united states).
rich, sweet, woody aroma, reminiscent of sandalwood. adds body and warmth to fragrance blends. not considered a true cedarwood as is atlas. often added to wood (or cedar) chests to add cedar scent.
-- (calming, comforting, strengthening)
blends well with: bergamot, cinnamon, frankincense, hyacinth, neroli, rose, rosemary, violet
bridge: middle - base

chamomile, german / aka: chamomile blue (flower/leaf) - matricaria chamomilla
(england, france, germany, hungary, morocco, russia, south america).
sweet, fruity, apple-like fragrance.
-- (balancing, calming, rejuvenating, relaxing, soothing)
caution: avoid during first trimester of pregnancy. avoid long term use if history of estrogen-dependent cancer
blends well with: cinnamon, galbanum, lavender, marjoram, patchouli, vetiver, ylang ylang

chamomile, roman (flower/leaf) - chamaemelum nobile
(belgium, bulgaria, england, france, hungary, north america, yugoslavia).
warm, sweet, and fruity (apple-like), woodsy scent. extensively used in cosmetics, soaps, perfumes and hair, massage and bath treatments. cherished for its gentle, relaxing and soothing effects.
-- (balancing, calming, rejuvenating, relaxing, soothing)
caution: avoid during first trimester of pregnancy - avoid long term use if history of estrogen-dependent cancer - avoid if allergic to ragweed
blends well with: bergamot, cinnamon, clary sage, cypress, frankincense, galbanum, jasmine, juniper, lavender, marjoram, neroli, rosemary, vetiver, ylang ylang

cinnamon (leaf) - cinnamomum zeylanicum (ceylon, india, madagascar, sri lanka).
spicy, sharp, sweet, clove-like aroma; aphrodisiac. perfect for making soaps, candles, incense and scenting potpourri's. the oil can also be distilled from the inner bark of the tree. true cinnamon bark is becoming difficult to find in many countries.
-- (energizing, invigorating, refreshing, stimulating, vitalizing, warming)
caution: very powerful, should be used with extreme care, skin irritant. avoid with high blood pressure
blends well with: balsam peru, black pepper, caraway, carnation, chamomile, citrus oils, clove, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, nutmeg, orange, rose, rosemary, spice oils, thyme, violet, ylang ylang
bridge: middle - base

cistus / aka: labdanum (herb-whole plant) - cistus ladaniferus (spain).
herbal, woodsy fragrance; aphrodisiac.
-- (soothing, stimulating, warming)
blends well with: lavender

citronella (grass) cymbopogon nardus (ceylon, china, madagascar, south america).
fresh, grassy, lemon-like, woodsy aroma; deodorant. its most useful quality seems to be as an insect repellant.
-- (refreshing, soothing, stimulating, vitalizing)
caution: use sparingly - skin irritant - avoid if pregnant
blends well with: amyris, basil, bergamot, cedarwood, eucalyptus, galbanum, geranium, lemon, lemongrass, lime, orange, peppermint, pine

clary sage (flower/leaf) - salvia sclarea (europe, france, morocco, oregon-usa. russia).
brisk, hay-like, herbal, nutty, sweet and spicy scent; aphrodisiac. traditionally used in treating digestive disorders, now most often mixed with other fragrances. noted for warming and ephoric properties.
-- (balancing, calming, centering, euphoric, relaxing, stress-relieving, tension-reducing, warming)
caution: avoid if pregnancy, low blood pressure, estrogen-dependent cancer, breast, ovarian or uterine cysts - avoid with alcohol - should never be used by those with epilepsy
blends well with: armoise, basil, bergamot, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, clove, coriander, frankincense, geranium, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lime, mandarin, neroli, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, petitgrain, pine, sandalwood, tangerine, violet
bridge: top - middle

clove bud (bud) - eugenia caryophyllata (east indies, indonesia, madagascar, philippines, west indies).
fruity, sweet-spicy, scent.
-- (energizing, invigorating, sense-enhancing, stimulating, warming)
caution: skin irritant - avoid if pregnant or high blood pressure
blends well with: allspice, balsam peru, basil, bay, bergamot, cade, cardamom, carnation, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, geranium, ginger, hyssop, lavender, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, ravensara, rose, sandalwood, tea tree, violet, ylang ylang

clove leaf (leaf) - syzygium aromaticum.
floral, fresh, sweet-spicy, penetrating aroma.
-- (stimulating, warming, comforting)
blends well with: allspice, balsam peru, basil, bay, bergamot, cade, cardamom, carnation, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, geranium, ginger, hyssop, lavender, nutmeg, orange, patchouli, ravensara, rose, sandalwood, tea tree, violet, ylang ylang

coriander (leaf/seed) - coriandrum sativum (france, holland, india, italy, morocco, north america, russia, tunisia).
balsamic, slightly pungent, sweet and spicy aroma; aphrodisiac, deodorant.
-- (balancing, calming, clarifying, energizing, memory-aid, refreshing, relaxing, stimulating, stress-reducing, warming)
caution: avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, breast cancer or fibrosis - use in moderation
blends well with: anise, bergamot, clary sage, cypress, frankincense, ginger, jasmine, lemon, neroli, nutmeg, pine, sandalwood
bridge: top - middle

cumin (seed) - cuminum cyminum (india, mediterranean, morocco, sicily).
sharp, spicy scent.
-- (balancing, revitalizing, stimulating)
caution: phototoxic, skin irritant
blends well with: - -

cypress (leaf/cone/twig) - cupressus sempervirens (france, mediterranean, spain).
pleasant, pine-like, spicy, sweet, woodsy aroma; deodorant. cypress is lovely when used as a bath scent and in skin care products.
-- (anger-soothing, balancing, calming, refreshing, stimulating, stress-reducing, tension-reducing)
caution: avoid if pregnant, high/low blood pressure, history of estrogen-dependent cancer.
blends well with: benzoin, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, coriander, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, marjoram, myrrh, orange, pine, sandalwood

dillweed (seed) - anethum graveolens (mediterranean, north america).
peppery, pickle-like, spicy, warm scent.
-- (balancing, clarifying, clearing, reviving, toning)
blends well with: lavender

elemi (resin) - canarium luzonicum (france, india, philippines).
balsamic, fresh, pungent, spicy, woodsy scent.
-- (clarifying, cooling, focusing,grounding, rejuvenating, soothing, stimulating, tension-relieving) <
blends well with: galbanum, ginger, juniper, rosemary

eucalyptus (leaf/twig) - eucalyptus globulus (australia, china, portugal, spain, tasmania).
cool, slightly bitter, and pungent, camphor-like quality; deodorant.
-- (balancing, cooling, cleansing, encourages sense of well-being, invigorating, stimulating)
caution: avoid with high blood pressure, epilepsy, or if using homeopathic remedies
blends well with: benzoin, caraway, cedarwood, clary sage, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, marjoram, peppermint, pine, ravensara, rosemary, thyme, vetiver

eucalyptus radiata (leaf) - eucalyptus radiata (australia).
see eucalyptus above

eucalyptus smithii (leaf) - eucalyptus smithii (china).
see eucalyptus above

eucalyptus, lemon (leaf) - eucalyptus citriodora (china).
see eucalyptus above

everlasting / aka: immortelle (flower) - helichrysum angustifolium (europe, france).
fresh, richly aromatic fragrance, with the subtle scent of honey and flora. invigorate the mind, eases nervous tension, and uplifts the mood.
-- (clearing, focusing, refreshing, relaxing)
blends well with: bergamot, chamomile, geranium, frankincense

fennel, sweet (seed) - foeniculum vulgare
(europe, france, germany, india, japan, mediterranean, north america, poland, romania, russia, spain).
sweet, floral, herby and slightly spicy aroma characteristic of the well known cooking herb. used extensively as a flavor and a fragrance.
-- (invigorating, restoring, stimulating, warming)
caution: skin irritant - avoid use in sun - avoid is pregnant, epileptic
blends well with: geranium, hyssop, lavender, lemon, rose, sandalwood

fir needle (needle) - abies balsamea; siberica (canada, east asia, siberia).
clear, balsamic, and refreshing aroma, highly esteemed for its fragrant scent.
-- (refreshing)
blends well with: basil, cedarwood, frankincense

frankincense (resin) - boswellia carterii (africa, china, ethiopia, india, oman, somalia).
soft, rich, balsamic, woody scent. used since antiquity in incense. many people use this oil when they meditate to calm the senses. often used in perfumes.
-- (calming, clarifying, clearing, focusing, grounding, relaxing, restoring, stress-reducing,tension-reducing, warming)
caution: avoid if pregnant.
blends well with: ambrette, basil, bergamot, camphor, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, cinnamon, clary sage, coriander, galbanum, geranium, ginger, lavender, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, orange, pepper, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver
bridge: middle - base

galbanum (resin) - ferula galbaniflua (france, lebanon, middle east).
earthy, fresh, herbal scent.
-- (energizing, revitalizing, stimulating, tension-reducing)
blends well with: anise, armoise, chamomile, citronella, elemi, frankincense, geranium, ginger, jasmine, jonquil, myrrh, palmarosa, rose, sandalwood, ylang ylang

geranium (flower, leaf, stalk) - pelargonium graveolens
(algeria, china, egypt, france, isle of reunion, madagascar, morocco, russia, south africa).
floral, leafy, rose-like scent; the sweet aroma may help one achieve an overall feeling of peace, health, and emotional security.
-- (relaxing, balancing, cooling, encourages sense of well-being, normalizing, relaxing, soothing, stress/tension-reducing)
caution: avoid overuse - skin irritant - avoid with history of estrogen-dependent cancer or hypoglycemia - do not confuse with rose geranium
blends well with: allspice, basil, bergamot, citronella, clary sage, carrot seed, clove, fennel, frankincense, galbanum, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, tangerine, tuberose, violet

ginger (root/stem) - zingiber officinale (africa, china, india, jamaica, japan).
smoky, spicy, sweet, woodsy aroma, with a hint of lemon; aphrodisiac.
-- (anchoring, arousing, energizing, invigorating, stimulating, strengthening, stress-reducing, warming)
caution: slightly phototoxic; skin irritant
blends well with: allspice, cajeput, cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, coriander, elemi, eucalyptus, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, patchouli, rose, rosemary, sandalwood, spearmint, verbena, vetiver

grapefruit, pink (peel) - citrus paradisi (florida-usa, israel).
sweet, sharp, citrusy aroma.
-- (energizing, focusing, inspiring, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, reviving, stimulating, stress-reducing, uplifting, warming)
caution: phototoxic
blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, cypress, frankincense, geranium, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, neroli, orange, palmarosa, rosemary, sage, tangerine, vanilla

helichrysum - see everlasting

hops (bud/flower) - humulus lupulus (europe, new zealand, north america, russia, spain).
herbal scent.
-- (calming, relaxing)

hyssop (flower/leaf) - hyssopus officinalis (brail, egypt, europe, france, india, italy, palestine).
camphorous, fresh/herbal, sweet, spicy scent.
-- (balancing, clearing, focusing, refreshing, stimulating, stress/tension-reducing, warming)
caution: toxic - use in very low dosages - avoid if pregnant, history of epilepsy, high blood pressure.
blends well with: basil, bergamot, celery, clary sage, clove, fennel, lavender, orange, rosemary, sage, tangerine

jasmine absolute (flower) - jasminum grandiflorum (algeria, china, egypt, france, italy, morocco).
sweet, floral, exotic aroma. called the "king of flower oils" has always had a reputation as an aphrodisiac.
-- (balancing, euphoric, hypnotic, relaxing, soothing, tension-reducing, warming)
caution: narcotic properties - avoid heavy use during pregnancy
blends well with: bergamot, cardamom, chamomile, clary, sage, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, lemongrass, muget, neroli, oakmoss, orange, rose, sandalwood, spearmint, vetiver

juniper (berry) - juniperus communis (africa, bulgaria, europe, italy, north america, north asia, siberia).
fresh, pine-like, woodsy scent; deodorant, aphrodisiac
-- (clearing, eases anxiety, energizing, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, restoring, strengthening, stress-reducing)
caution: avoid long-term use - avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, kidney disease - skin irritant
blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, clary sage, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus, frankencense, geranium, lavender, myrrh, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver

lavender, french/fine (flower) - lavandula vera; augusytifolia; officinalis; dentata (bulgaria, france, spain).
clean, fresh, floral, sweet scent, is gentle to the skin; deodorant. almost fruity sweet topnote; fresh herbaceous, overall coo; a pleasant, balsamic woody backnote. traditionally known to help soothe emotional extremes. when applied, may bring the aromatic influence of love and peace.
-- (balancing, calming, cooling, exhilarating, focusing, refreshing, relaxing, soothing, stress/tension-reducing)
caution: avoid during first trimester of pregnancy or low blood pressure - overuse can cause headaches - do not confuse with lavender spike
blends well with: allspice, amyris, basil, bergamot, black pepper, carrot, cedarwood, chamomile, cistus, citronella, clary sage, clove, cypress, dill, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, juniper, lemon, lemongrass, lime, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, musk, neroli, oakmoss, orange, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, ravensara, rosemary, sandalwood, spearmint, spikenard, tangerine, tea tree, thyme, tonka bean, verbena, vetiver, wintergreen, yarrow
bridge: top - middle

lemon (peel) - citrus limonum (argentina, brazil, israel, california-usa).
fresh, tart, citrus, scent. although lemon oil is usually pressed from the peel. the highest quality is obtained when the oil is distilled from the whole lemon.
-- (balancing, refreshing, calming, cheering, cooling, memory aid, refreshing, relaxing, stimulating, stress-reducing, uplifting)
caution: phototoxic - may irritate sensitive skin - dilute well before use on skin
blends well with: benzoin, bergamot, carrot, cedar, chamomile, citronella, cypress, eucalyptus, fennel, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, mandarin, neroli, orange, peppermint, rose, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, tea tree, thyme, vanilla, verbena, violet, ylang ylang

lemongrass (herb/leaf) - cymbopogon flexuous; citratus
(brazil, central africa, ceylon, china, guatemala, haiti, sri lanka).
fresh grassy-lemon scent. used extensively in soaps, perfumes and sprays; deodorant.
-- (calming, cleansing, focusing, invigorating, stress-reducing, vitalizing)
caution: phototoxic - avoid if pregnant or high blood pressure - avoid use on sensitive skin - dilute well before use on skin
blends well with: basil, cedarwood, citronella, eucalyptus, geranium, jasmine, lavender, palmarosa, neroli, niaouli, tea tree, vetiver

lime (peel) - citrus aurantifolia (brazil, florida-usa, italy, mexico, west indies).
fresh, sweet, green, zesty scent. like lemon, oil is usually pressed from peel, but this oil may also be distilled from the leaves and flowers or the whole fruit.
-- (cheering, refreshing, uplifting anxiety, cheering, cleansing, concentration, energizing, equalizing, exhaustion, invigorating, refreshing, stimulating, uplifting)
caution: phototoxic - may irritate sensitive skin
blends well with: bay, bergamot, birch, carrot, citronella, clary sage, clove bud, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, lavender, mandarin, neroli, nutmeg, rose, rosemary, tangerine, ylang ylang

litsea cubeba (fruit) - litsea cubeba (china).
citrus and fruity fragrance with floral undertones. also known as may chang, it is know for its ability to anchor citrus notes.
-- (stimulating, uplifting)
blends well with: lavender, neroli, verbena

mandarin, red (peel) - citrus nobilis; reticulata (argentina, brazil, china, india, italy, spain).
light, floral, citrus scent.
-- (calming, cheering, stimulating, strengthening, stress-reducing)
caution: phototoxic
blends well with: anise, basil, bergamot, camphor, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, lime, marjoram, neroli, nutmeg, orange, rose, sage, vanilla, verbena

marjoram (flower/leaf) - thymus mastichina (egypt, france, germany, hungary, portugal, spain).
warm, herbal, pepper-like, spicy aroma.
-- (calming, eases aggression/anxiety, relaxing, soothing, strengthening, stress reducing, warming)
caution: avoid use on children and elderly - avoid if pregnant, low blood pressure
blends well with: basil, bergamot, cedarwood, chamomile, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, mandarin, nutmeg, orange, pepper, peppermint, rosemary, rosewood, tea tree, thyme, ylang ylang
bridge: top - middle

melissa / aka: lemon balm, sweet balm (leaf) - melissa officinalis (europe, france, mediterranean).
sharp, floral, lemon-like arome. true melissa is distilled from lemon balm. most of the melissa essential oil offered is a mixture of lemon-scented oils which might even include citronella; this is considered "the most adulterated essential oil in the industry". it takes approximately 1.5 tons of the plant to obtain a pound of oil, thus the expensive price of the true, unadulterated essential oil
-- (calming, eases anxiety, inspiring, relaxing, stress/tension-reducing, uplifting)
caution: may irritate skin - may trigger allergic reactions - avoid if pregnant
blends well with: - -

myrrh (resin) - commiphora myrrha; molmol (africa, ethiopia, somalia).
warm, balsamic, spicy, smoky and slightly musky in aroma, rare and precious, a traditional perfume which is easy on the skin; deodorant. often used in massage.
-- (clearing, focusing, soothing, stimulating, warming)
caution: avoid during pregnancy
blends well with: clove, cypress, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, juniper, lavender, orange, patchouli, pine, sandalwood
bridge: middle - base

myrtle (leaf/stem) - myrtus communis (spain).
fresh, slightly sweet and penetrating scent.
-- (anger-abating)
blends well with: coriander, lavender, rosemary, tea tree

neroli / aka: orange blossom (flower) - citrus aurantium (egypt, france, italy, morocco, spain, tunisia).
beautiful floral fragrance, both bitter and sweet; aphrodisiac, deodorant.
-- (eases aggression/anxiety, calming, centering, focusing, hypnotic, inspiring, memory aid, relaxing, stress/tension-reducing, uplifting)
blends well with: ambrette, benzoin, bergamot, cardamom, carrot, chamomile, clary sage, coriander, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, orange, patchouli, rose, tangerine, ylang ylang
bridge: top - middle

niaouli / aka: gomenol (leaf/stem) - melaleuca quinquenervia viridiflora (australia, east indies, spain, tasmania).
slightly sweet, penetrating aroma, eucalyptus/pine-like
-- (clearing, invigorating, refreshing, soothing)
blends well with: coriander, fennel, juniper, orange, peppermint

nutmeg (seed) - myristica fragrans (east indies, indonesia, sumatra, west indies).
spicy, warm and nutty/ woodsy odor.
-- (eases anxiety/irritability, energizing, rejuvenating, stress-reducing, uplifting, warming)
caution: use with caution and moderation
blends well with: bay, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, coriander, geranium, lime, landarin, marjoram, orange, petitgrain, rosemary, tea tree
bridge: top - middle

oakmoss absolute (lichen-whole plant) - evernia prusnatri (spain).
viscous liquid with an extremely intense aroma reminiscent of a damp forest floor; aphrodisiac.
-- (calming, cooling, mood-enhancing)
caution: can irritate sensitive skin
blends well with: cedarwood, citrus oils, hyacinth, jasmine, pine, rose, vetiver

orange, bitter (peel) - citrus aurantium
(brazil, france, central america, north america, south america, spain, west indies).
brisk, refreshing, fruity; zesty, refreshing citrus fragrance.
-- (calming, cheering, eases anxiety, inspiring, invigorating, refreshing, relaxing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
blends well with: basil, camphor, cardamom, carrot, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, vanilla, verbena, ylang ylang

orange, sweet (peel) - citrus aurantium
(brazil, france, central america, north america, south america, spain, west indies).
tangy, bright refreshing scent; zesty, refreshing citrus fragrance.
-- (calming, cheering, eases anxiety, inspiring, invigorating, refreshing, relaxing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
blends well with: basil, camphor, cardamom, carrot, cinnamon, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, nutmeg, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, sage, sandalwood, tangerine, vanilla, verbena, ylang ylang

oregano (flower/leaf) - thymus capitatus, origanum vulgare (asia, egypt, europe, north africa, spain).
from the greek oreganos, "delight-of-the-mountain". warm, herbaceous/woody, slightly spicy scent.
-- (stimulating, strengthening, warming)
caution: avoid if pregnant - irritant to skin, mucous membranes.
blends well with: basil, fennel, geranium, pine
bridge: top - middle

palmarosa (herb-whole plant) - cymbopogon martini (brazil, central america, india).
citrus, floral, grassy fragrance with a hint of rose.
-- (calming, eases aggression/anxiety, inspiring, relaxing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
blends well with: amyris, bergamot, cedarwood, citronella, galbanum, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemongrass, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood
bridge: top - middle

parsley (seed) - petroselinum sativum (india).
fresh, grassy, somewhat herby aroma with spicy undertones; aphrodisiac
blends well with: lavender, lime, orange

patchouli (leaf) - pogostemon patchouli; cablin (china, indonesia, japan, madagascar).
exotic, earthy, balsamic, spicy-sweet, woodsy scent, often prized as a personal fragrance; deodorant. an aphrodisiac; when diffused, this aromatic oil helps create an amorous atmosphere.
-- (calming, clearing, eases anxiety, focusing, increases desire, relaxing, soothing, stress-reducing, stimulating)
blends well with: allspice, armoise, balsam peru, bergamot, black pepper, carnation, cedarwood, chamomile, clary sage, clove, frankincense, geranium, ginger, jasmine, lavender, myrrh, neroli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, vetiver
bridge: middle - base

pennyroyal (leaf) - mentha pulegium (morocco).
herbaceous, minty scent
blends well with: cedarwood, peppermint

peppermint (herb-whole plant) - mentha piperita (china, europe, united states).
powerful sharp, minty scent; deodorant.
-- (cooling, focusing, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, relaxing, revitalizing, stimulating)
caution: avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, with homeopathic remedies - may irritate sensitive skin
blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lemon, marjoram, niaouli, pine, rosemary, sandalwood

pettigrain (leaf/stem) - citrus aurantium; hystrix (africa, europe, france, italy, morocco, paraguay, south america).
strong citrus, sweet, woodsy; a fragrance that is alternately woody and floral; deodorant.
-- (calming, inspiring, invigorating, refreshing, relaxing, soothing, uplifting)
caution: avoid on sensitive skin
blends well with: bergamot, cedarwood, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, orange, rosemary, rosewood, sandalwood

pine (needle) - pinus sylvestris (bulgaria, europe, north america, russia).
crisp, fresh, sweet scent; deodorant. pine needle oil differs from pine oil, which may utilize all or any part of the tree.
-- (cleansing, clearing, refreshing, rejuvenating, revitalizing, stimulating, strengthening, stress-reducing)
caution: avoid if history of prostate cancer or high blood pressure - may irritate sensitive skin
blends well with: cedarwood, citronella, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, juniper, lavender, myrrh, myrtle, niaouli, rosemary, spikenard, tea tree

ravensara (bark/leaf) - ravensara anisata; aromatica (australia, madagascar).
eucalyptus-like, medicinal, woodsy scent, a mild version of rosemary.
-- (balancing, calming, clearing, relaxing)
blends well with: chamomile, clove, eucalyptus, lavender, pine, rosemary

rose otto (flower) - rosa damascena; centrifolia (bulgaria, france, morocco, russia, turkey).
intense, floral, sweet, honey-like, exquisite fragrance; aphrodisiac. also known as damask rose.
-- (balancing, calming, cheering, cooling, hypnotic, memory aid, relaxing, stress/tension-reducing, uplifting)
caution: avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure
blends well with: ambrette, bergamot, black pepper, cardamom, chamomile, clary sage, clove, fennel, galbanum, geranium, ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemon, mandarin, musk, neroli, oakmoss, orange, patchouli, sandalwood, tangerine, vetiver, ylang ylang

rosehip co2 (seed) - rosa canina; rubignosa (chile, germany).
the co2 extracted oil is not subject to the short shelf life usually associated with this oil

rosemary (flower/leaf/twig) - rosmarinus officinalis (france, japan, morocco, spain, tunisia, yugoslavia).
a strong, fresh camphorous, medicinal, woodsy scent; aphrodisiac. characteristic of this cooking herb. used as a fragrance and a flavor.
-- (clarifying, focusing, inspiring, invigorating, memory aid, stimulating, stress/tension-reducing, warming, uplifting)
caution: avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure, epilepsy, or if taking homeopathic remedies - may be a skin irritant - avoid use on damaged skin
blends well with: armoise, basil, bergamot, black pepper, cade, caraway, carrot, cedarwood, chamomile, cinnamon, elemi, eucalyptus, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, marjoram, nutmeg, orange, peppermint, petitgrain, pine, ravensara, sage, tea tree, thyme
bridge: top - middle

rosewood / aka: bois de rose (wood) - aniba rosaeodora (brazil, peru).
sweet, woody-floral scent with a hint of spice; aphrodisiac; deodorant. a popular fragrance extensively used in perfumes, soaps, massage oils and bath oils.
-- (calming, comforting)
blends well with: cedarwood, coriander, frankincense, rose, sandalwood, vetiver
bridge: top - middle

sage, dalmatian (flower/leaf) - salvia officinalis (china, croatia, france, mediterranean, spain, yugoslavia).
strong, camphorous, herbal scent; powerful and penetrating. also used in cooking.
-- (cheering, energizing, memory aid, soothing, stimulating, warming)
caution: moderate toxicity - avoid with children, if pregnant, with high blood pressure, with epilepsy
blends well with: armoise, bergamot, grapefruit, hyssop, lemon, mandarin, orange, rosemary

sandalwood (wood) - santalum album (europe, india, indonesia, north america).
rare and precious, with a deep, soft, balsamic, sweet-woody scent; aphrodisiac; deodorant. one of the oldest known perfume materials with at least a 4,000-year history.
-- (calming, centering, grounding, relaxing, revitalizing, stress-reducing)
blends well with: ambrette, balsam peru, basil, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, clove, coriander, cypress, daphne, fennel, frankincense, galbanum, geranium, ginger, honeysuckle, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemon, muguet, myrrh, neroli, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, rose, spearmint, vanilla, vetiver, violet
bridge: middle - base

spearmint (flower) - mentha spicata; viridis (china, europe, mediterranean, russia, usa).
fresh, minty scent, very similar to peppermint, slightly sweeter; deodorant.
-- (cooling, energizing, invigorating, refreshing, revitalizing, stimulating)
caution: avoid if pregnant, if using homeopathic remedies - may irritate mucous membranes
blends well with: basil, bergamot, birch, eucalyptus, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, rosemary, sandalwood

spikenard (root) - nardostachys jatamansi (india).
heavy, sweet, woodsy scent.
-- (calming, inspiring, rejuvenating, stress/tension-reducing)
caution: avoid if pregnant
blends well with: lavender, patchouli, pine, vetiver

spruce (needle) - tsuga canadensi (canada).
fresh pine, bitter orange peel aroma
blends well with: lavender, clary sage

tagetes (flower) - tagetes glandulifera (madagascar).
minty, sweetish, fruity ordor. many people find the aroma somewhat disturbing.
caution: do not use if pregnant or on children phototoxic; do not use prior to exposure to simulated or natural sunlight
blends well with: - -

tangerine (peel) - citrus reticulata (brazil, florida-usa).
fresh, light, sweet, citrus, tangy scented oil, similar to orange oil, but has its own unique fragrance.
-- (calming, cheering, relaxing, soothing, stress-reducing, uplifting)
caution: phototoxic; do not use on skin exposed to direct sunlight
blends well with: basil, bergamot, chamomile, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, hyssop, lavender, lemon, lime, neroli, orange, rose, vanilla, verbena

tea tree (leaf/twig) - malaleuca alternifoli (australia).
herbal, spicy, medicinal, camphor-like, woodsy scent. a common ingredient in soaps, toothpastes, disinfectants, gargles, acne creams and even colognes.
-- (cleansing, cooling, energizing, stimulating, uplifting)
caution: may irritate sensitive skin areas
blends well with: cinnamon, clary sage, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemon, marjoram, nutmeg, pine, rosemary, ylang ylang, thyme

thyme, red (flower/leaf) - thymus vulgaris (egypt, hungary, mediterranean, spain).
iintense, herbal, medicinal, spicy scent; deodorant, aphrodisiac; characteristic of the culinary herb. used both as a flavoring and a fragrance. also used in mouthwashes, toothpaste and cough lozenges.
-- (cleansing, energizing, inspiring, invigorating, memory aid, refreshing, stimulating, warming)
caution: avoid if pregnant, high blood pressure - skin irritant - moderate toxicity - avoid use on children and elderly
blends well with: armoise, bergamot, cade, cedarwood, chamomile, eucalyptus, lavender, lemon, marjoram, muguet, rosemary
bridge: top - middle

thyme, white (flower/leaf) - thymus vulgaris (spain).
see thyme, red

vanilla absolute (bean) - vanilla planifolia (france, madagascar).
sweet balsamic aroma; aphrodisiac.
-- (calming, creativity, hypnotic, restoring, warming)
blends well with: bergamot, grapefruit, lemon, mandarin, orange, sandalwood, tangerine, vetiver
bridge: middle - base

vanilla extract (bean) - see vanilla absolute above

verbena / aka: lemon verbena (flower/leaf) - lippia citriodora (france, spain).
light, fresh, citrus scent; smells of sweet lemons; aphrodisiac.
-- (refreshing, stimulating, uplifting)
caution: phototoxic
blends well with: basil, bergamot, chamomile, geranium, lavender, mandarin, orange, neroli, rose, rosemary, tangerine

vetiver / aka: vetivert (root) - vetiveria zizanoides (haiti, india, indonesia, japan, java, north america, philippines).
heavy, citrus, slightly-sweet, smoky, earthy, tobacco-like, woodsy scent; aphrodisiac.
-- (anchoring, balancing, eases aggression, grounding, relaxing, revives exhaustion, soothing, stress/tension-reducing)
blends well with: cedarwood, chamomile, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, lavender, lemongrass, patchouli, rose, sandalwood, spikenard, vanilla, violet, ylang ylang
bridge: middle - base

violet absolute (leaf) - viola odorata (england, france, greece, italy).
herbal, sweet scent.
-- (balancing, energizing, revitalizing)
blends well with: basil, cardamom, cedarwood, clary sage, heliotrope, lemon, sandalwood, vetiver

white pine - see pine

wintergreen (leaf) - gualtheria procumbens (china, north america).
fresh, minty, sweet, woodsy scent.
-- (invigorating, refreshing, stimulating)
caution: avoid if pregnant, aversion to aspirin; high toxicity; skin irritant
blends well with: birch, lavender

wormwood (herb) - artemesia absinthium (usa).

yarrow / aka: milfoil (flower/leaf) - achillea millefolium (africa, bulgaria, europe, north america).
rich, floral, dry herbaceous aroma; pale yellow to bright blue in color.
-- (calming, relaxing, soothing)
blends well with: lavender

ylang ylang I (flower) - cananga odorata var genuina (indonesia, madagascar, philippines).
sweet, floral, heavy aroma. floral, heady, oriental, sweet exotic fragrance; aphrodisiac. tropical islanders have long credited the sweet, heady aroma of ylang ylang blossoms with the capacity to help ease the unpleasant effects of stress and nervousness. the oil is considered one of the most romantic essential oils. the distilled oil is collected in three stages. "type I" is the top or first run and is considered premium with a fuller, more complex nose. "type III" (below) is the last run. "complete" (also below) is a combination of all three stages.
-- (balancing, calming, cooling, eases aggression/anxiety, euphoric, relaxing, vitalizing, uplifting)
caution: avoid if history of apnea or low blood pressure - may irritate sensitive skin - do not overuse
blends well with: allspice, bergamot, camphor, cardamom, cedarwood, chamomile, citronella, clove, galbanum, jasmine, lavender, lemon, marjoram, neroli, rose, rosewood, tea tree, verbena, vetiver

ylang ylang III (flower) - see ylang ylang I above

ylang ylang complete (flower) - see ylang ylang I above